The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, at the heart of Europe, continues to gain about 2% in population every year. The South of the country, the former industrial area, is growing especially rapidly, by a quarter since 2010 and in 2021 it hosted a third of all residents. Demand for housing has increased and is one of the most rapidly increasing expenses for Luxembourg households today.

In the already urbanised South, many large-scale development projects for new districts on industrial brownfields are being realised or are in the pipeline. This impacts the urban morphology of the area. Formerly geographically separated urban districts are now connected. But how can new districts interconnect urban fabrics, let alone urban functions? Differdange, the third largest city in Luxembourg, is home to such a brownfield project, ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’.

Rationale for action

The rapid development of the steel industry in Luxembourg during the 19th and 20th centuries created a unique urban tissue in the South. Housing was built around steel mills, as in other industrial areas. This resulted in large industrial zones being next to urban centres. In some cases, as in Differdange, these industrial zones are ‘wedges’, impermeable barriers that separate districts functionally.

Steel production in Luxembourg has declined over several crises and steel mills have reduced or entirely stopped production. Around 2000, some 25 hectares became available in the centre of Differdange. The ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ was formerly a landfill for the adjacent steel mill.

Urban development concept of the ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’. The urban district of the development is shown in the upper part of the image with the new shopping centre ‘Opkorn’ in the upper right corner. The park along the Chiers is shown in the bottom half of the image. Source: Dewey+Muller, 2022.

Objective

The Plateau du Funiculaire functionally split several Differdange districts, so plans were drawn up to transform the brownfield site into a new urban district. From 2004, the city has developed urban concepts in cooperation with many local and national players. A new district, providing housing, offices and commercial areas is planned to connect the existing districts of Differdange, Oberkorn and Fousbann.

Some challenges had to be addressed in developing the urban concepts, including pollution of the area due to its use as landfill for the blast furnace. In addition, the river Chiers running through the area was planned to be renaturalised, to provide water retention and flood areas.

Time frame

The first scoping studies were realised as early as 2004. Since then, planning and construction has been ongoing with most of the district being finalised in 2020. Final construction during 2022 will complete the project on the former landfill.

Key players

The key player for developing the new area was the city of Differdange. The urban concept was developed with a Luxembourg planning office as well as an investor.

Looks and feels of the urban design of ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’. Source: LuxEnergy S.A., 2021.

Implementation steps and processes

Following the first plans to develop the district in 2000, initial research in 2004 assessed the landfill pollution. At the same time, the city of Differdange also outlined strategic objectives for the district. In 2005, a planning office proposed the look and feel of the new district as an urban concept. Development started in 2006 when the historic ‘Villa Hadir’, a former reception and administrative building for the blast furnace was refurbished. Plans to implement the urban concept were submitted for building permits.

A brand was created in 2007 to establish an urban identity to market the new district to future inhabitants, businesses and commerce. Work on the infrastructure started in 2009 and the first bricks for the residential buildings were laid in 2011. In the same year, the recreational park was finalised, allowing neighbourhood residents to get to know the new urban district. Around 2019, a late change to the project integrated a multi-functional tower, called ‘Gravity’, increasing the number of planned housing units from 650 to 728.

Required resources

The resources used are not known.

Results

After a bit more than a decade of construction, the new district will be finalised in 2022. Within 10 years, 728 housing units have been created, providing accommodation for more than 1,600 people. The district also features 15 km2 of office and retail area. A school, a section of Luxembourg university, public administrative offices and shops complement the housing so the district is a fully developed urban quarter of Differdange.

A new train station links the area to the national railway network. In addition bus connections as well as bike and pedestrian infrastructure connect the district both internally and to the surrounding areas.

To minimise soil sealing, ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ is high density. Nevertheless, some polluted parts of the former landfill were sealed with an artificial layer of clay so surface rainwater can drain into the nearby river. Rainwater that penetrates polluted soil layers is collected separately for treatment.

Residential blocks in the ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ district. Source: LuxEnergy S.A., 2021.

Experiences, success factors, risks

The relatively short construction period of ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ highlights good preparation. Potential obstacles were identified, and solutions developed to avoid these.

The urban concepts and building permits provided planning security. The late modification to include a multi-functional tower in the district shows the project adapted to changing demands. Such flexibility is important as needs and requirements usually change for decade-long large-scale urban development projects.

Conclusions

‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ is a prime example of a successful large-scale brownfield development project. Such projects can close functional gaps between urban districts, offering new housing and commerce. In addition, interests from multiple public and private stakeholders can be addressed in one go. It also shows innovative approaches to issues like polluted soils that are frequently encountered in brownfield developments.

‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ also underlines that brownfield development offers much more freedom compared to developments in existing urban areas. Measures can be discussed before being realised in detail, helping to avoid conflicts.

In addition, brownfield development projects such as ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ are testbeds for new approaches and technologies. The size of the district meant that planners faced challenges that could not be solved with existing planning approaches. An example is heating for the residential units where a centralised district heating system was planned as early as 2007 to reduce infrastructure costs and save energy.

Today the district offers a new face for Differdange and combines different urban functions in an optimal way. With multiple housing and commercial possibilities, ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ will eventually become the new centre for the town.

Contacts

Urban technical service of Differdange: pag@differdange.lu

References

Dewey Muller, 2018: Plateau du Funiculaire project presentation (German): https://www.deweymuller.com/projekte/plateau-du-funiculaire/

Aurea Differdange, 2020: Project developer website (in French): https://www.aurea-differdange.lu/fr/localisation

Public participation has become an essential part of any public planning endeavour. Many citizens actively seek to be involved in planning processes, to remain informed, provide their knowledge. or to advocate their interests.

To facilitate future public participation, the Luxembourg government has published an online participation portal and the ‘National Portal for Public Inquiries’ can be used free of charge by Luxembourg public institutions.

Rationale for action

Participation is important to increase acceptance of projects. Citizens can be involved at an early stage, enabling mediation and information. So, participation has become an integral part of planning and for many processes it is even required by law.

Participation however is often costly for project implementors as no one solution fits all. Procedures need to be developed from scratch for each endeavour, the scope of participation must also be defined, participants invited, workshops held and results incorporated in the planning process. Participation is sometimes also seen as a risk with unexpected results or even resulting in deadlock.

The unique demographics of Luxembourg also require a special approach to guarantee the democratic legitimacy of public participation. About half the population are not Luxembourg citizens and spoken languages include Luxembourgish, Portuguese, French, German and English among others. Local participation is often organised in Luxembourgish and hence can be exclusive. The spoken language and sometimes also the timing of participation workshops in the evening exclude a large number of citizens.

Objective

Digital approaches to public participation can address this. Informing citizens is easier and feedback in different languages can be sent at any time. Digital platforms can cover larger target groups, potentially increasing the number of informed citizens and the amount of feedback.

To be successful, a digital approach needs to respect citizen involvement. So, the user-perspective needs to be at the very centre. A simple layout, streamlined processes, clear indications for why feedback is required and information on processing the data are key.

A new approach was required to address the weaknesses and to harness the strengths of current participative procedures. To simplify public services and offer more digital services to citizens, the online platform ‘National Portal for Public Inquiries’ was created.

Time frame

The idea for the platform came up in 2018. Since then, it has been developed in close cooperation between two government institutions.

Overview on the menu and pieces of information for each public inquiry. Source: CFUE, 2022.

Key players

Development of the portal was entrusted to the Ministry of Digitalisation, CFUE (“Cellule de facilitation urbanisme et environnement”, French for ‘Urban Planning and Environment Facilitation Unit’). This unit supports exchange and coordination in planning projects between stakeholders. CFUE was created in 2013 and integrated into the Ministry of Digitalisation at the end of 2018.  The portal is also refined continuously by CFUE and is also hosted by the Government IT Centre (CTIE – Centre for information technology of the Luxembourg State).

Implementation steps and processes

The idea came from CFUE. The benefits and added value of a digital participation platform became apparent during its coordination of many planning projects.

Since 2018, the layout and structure of the platform has been developed by CFUE, involving important players from different government institutions. As the idea matured, it became more and more important to design the portal around citizens’ needs. The portal design and processes are modular to enable players from different levels and institutions to post and host participation procedures and notices.

After the design was concluded, the platform was implemented together with CTIE. Since its launch in early 2021, the portal has been an official government service.

Required resources

The resources used to create the portal are not known, but came entirely from CFUE and CTIE.

Results

Since its launch in 2021, the portal has been accessible to the Luxembourg public. In addition to public participation procedures that can be launched and organised through the portal, it informs citizens on planning endeavours through public notices, enables information meetings to be scheduled and held and provides guidance on implementing participation procedures, complying with the applicable laws. 

The portal provides factsheets on different procedures, along with the regulatory background and required public participation delays, which ensures standardised procedures. The portal also offers guidance documents.

A unique feature is that individuals can register for a territorial newsletter and an E-mail is automatically sent notifying any participation procedure in a selected municipality

Overview on the geographical location of ongoing public inquiries in Luxembourg. Source: CFUE, 2022.

Experiences, success factors, risks

Right from its official launch, the portal is already widely used with more than 200 procedures registered in November 2021. Most of these are environmental participation processes, which in Luxembourg are complex and difficult to run. So, the portal already brings administrative simplification for authorities and citizens.

CFUE is a neutral coordinator in planning projects, connecting with a large network of local and national planning experts and decision makers. The neutrality and connectedness of the institution ensure impartiality and proper use of the portal.

Conclusions

With the ‘National Portal for Public Inquiries’, the Government has developed a new instrument that facilitates public participation. The portal is easy to understand, and the modular design enables inclusion of participation procedures from all fields and levels in spatial planning.

The possibility to quickly locate planning projects, the customisable newsletter, an ability to switch languages and to easily submit an opinion showcase that the user-dimension has been successfully integrated into the design of the portal.

Contact

A contact form is accessible on: https://enquetes.public.lu/en/support/contact.html

References

Luxembourg Government 2021: National Portal for Public Inquiries: https://enquetes.public.lu/en.html

Luxembourg Ministry of Digitalisation, 2021: Press dossier on the National Portal for Public Inquiries (in French): https://gouvernement.lu/dam-assets/documents/actualites/2021/01-janvier/07-enquetes-publiques.pdf

Many firms and jobs in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg are centred around the capital city. Municipalities beyond Luxembourg city and its immediate surroundings have difficulties attracting firms and providing local employment. In addition, the many international companies in Luxembourg mean that prices for office space are challenging for start-ups.

The municipality of Dudelange in the south of the country has initiated ‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’. This incubator is a first step to supporting a new eco-innovation cluster within the municipality and providing affordable office space for start-ups.

Rationale for action

With an ever-increasing number of enterprises and jobs around the capital city, some recent developments have caused difficulties, including the many cross-border commuters working in Luxembourg city. Territories between Luxembourg city and the borders to Belgium, France and Germany have turned into a ‘drive-through country’. With a low municipal business tax rate, Luxembourg city continues to be an unrivalled player in the competition for businesses in the Grand Duchy, leaving little chance for other municipalities to attract firms.

Many international firms rent offices in Luxemburg city, so it has become difficult for start-ups to find affordable office space in the capital area. Start-ups often rely on cheap office space, so where space is expensive less of them can emerge.

Objective

The ‘Dudelange Innovation Hub’ aims to attract and support eco-technology start-ups that will help to establish a new economic cluster in the municipality and the country. Eco-technology approaches, practices and technologies developed in the new cluster can eventually be transferred to municipal departments to improve their services.

This will contribute to local economic development and new jobs. The incubator also aims to shape economic activities towards sustainable and ecological activities in the future ‘NeiSchmelz’ eco-district, a brownfield development within the municipality.

Time frame

The decision to set-up ‘Dudelange Innovation Hub’ in the ‘NeiSchmelz’ district was taken in July 2017. Two months later, the project was presented to the public. With support from several national players, implementation of facilities for the incubator started soon after. In July 2018, just one year after the decision was taken, the incubator opened its doors and welcomed the first enterprises. In 2019, the Incubator welcomed seven start-ups. Three start-ups cooperated closely with the municipality for testing and introducing their products and services in the city of Dudelange.

Key players

‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ is an initiative of the municipality which chairs and administers the incubator. The provision of facilities and their operation is in cooperation with national players, namely Luxinnovation and Technoport S.A. This innovation agency and business incubator assist the municipality in selecting businesses. Another player is the ‘Fonds du Logement’, the national fund for housing, which owns the land.

Implementation steps and processes

The availability of financial and organisational resources required for the project and the limited number of players involved meant progress on ‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ was quick. The concept was developed and approved in 2017 and the incubator started operation in July 2018.

Operation of the incubator is ensured by the municipality together with the national innovation agency and the national technology incubator. Start-ups looking to rent office space apply to the national innovation agency. After a pre-selection, a final choice is made by a selection committee of all three key players.

Once the start-ups are welcomed in the ‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’, they receive support in the form of contact building, fundraising and other services provided by the national innovation agency and the business incubator.

Required resources

The municipality rents office spaces from the national fund for housing ‘Fonds du Logement’. In addition to the rent, implementation of the facilities cost EUR 175,000, which was covered up to 80 % by the state.

Results

‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ includes 14 furbished offices available to eco-technology start-ups. Additionally, the 500 square meters of newly built office space include conference rooms and shared facilities.

Companies can rent the offices for up to five years at a reduced rent. Start-ups less than two years old pay EUR 15 per square meter each month, all other companies pay EUR 20.

At the end of 2019, one year after inauguration, seven of the 14 workplaces were already let. The start-ups cover specialisations including smart irrigation systems, smart LED street lighting systems and active mapping of flood zones using innovative drone technology. Products of these eco-technology firms are transferred to the local administration and will improve the public services provided by the municipality.

Facilities of the ‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’. Source: Municipality of Dudelange, 2018.

Experiences, success factors, risks

‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ is an innovative approach offering start-up support to a specific sector in a specific location. The instrument also helps to foster innovation in eco-technology. Although this is frequently in the media, it is not frequently addressed by entrepreneurs.

The instrument is also suitable for interim uses. While the eco-district is developing at full speed, ‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ was based in a building of a steel mill that halted production in 2005. Occupation of the offices by start-ups is for up to five years, so winding-up the incubator should involve little effort when the services are no longer needed.

Conclusions

‘Innovation Hub Dudelange’ shows that relatively little finance is required to set-up a business incubator. Such initiatives are thus suitable for smaller municipalities with limited human and financial resources. Relying on support from national agencies, the municipality benefits from local economic development incentives from the start-ups as well as from the emerging eco-technology cluster, enabling innovations to be transferred to the municipal administration.  

Contact

Contact address: innovationhub@dudelange.lu

References

Municipality of Dudelange, 2019: ‘Innovation Hub – 3 startups réinventent la ville de demain avec Dudelange!’ (in French):

Luxinnovation, 2019: News – Innovation Hub – one year of supporting eco-technology: https://www.luxinnovation.lu/news/innovation-hub-one-year-of-supporting-eco-technology/

How to enable sustainable urban commercial development in inner cities? How to cope with commercial concurrence between city centres and greenfield shopping centres? How to deal with commercial vacancies? What instruments and tools are there that decision-makers can use?

On Friday, 17. September 2021, CIPU organised an excursion to two Luxembourg cities to address these questions. During an afternoon, around 30 planners and experts from various cities and municipalities across the country learned about the approaches, among others of Differdange, the third biggest city of Luxembourg with 26.000 inhabitants.

The second half of the excursion led to Differdange

Differdange is a city built around a steel mill, featuring several centres that are geographically disconnected. The city has doubled in population during the past 15 years. This made it necessary to upscale urban services and to re-design the city centre. Much of the inner-city offer is still influenced by the consumer habits of steel workers: in footfall of the steel mills, restaurants, cafés, and bars dominate the urban environment, only few shops have been established in the inner city. With the steel mill slowly loosing importance for the urban economic activities, a transition of the urban commercial offer is taking place.

Planners in discussion in front of the new shopping centre, called ‘Op Korn’. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

To support the re-orientation of the urban offer and to link the geographically disconnected centres, a new district has been developed. At the intersection of two major roads on a former landfill of an adjacent steel mill, the new district ‘Plateau Funiculaire’ links the different districts by providing different amenities and new functions.

The new district has been built around a large shopping centre, that has been strategically placed opposite of the still-running steel mill, at a transport axis through the city. With the development, the place presents the new centre of attraction in Differdange, offering shops, offices, and apartments for new and old inhabitants.

The transition of the urban commercial offer has led to an increasing number of commercial vacancies during the last 20 years. Despite the cities’ smaller size, the challenges Differdange faces are of similar nature to those of Esch-sur-Alzette (see Blog post on the first half of the CIPU Excursion). Both cities suffer from a decreasing inner city attractiveness due to high numbers of vacancies.  

Instead of initiating a proprietary instrument, the municipality of Differdange has purchased two shop surfaces in the city centre and leases them to shop owners or new entrepreneurs. In doing so, the city does not rely on pre-definded procedures and rulings. Instead, it asks interested shop owners and entrepreneurs to develop applications, in which business ideas and shop concepts are described. The dossier is submitted to a selection committee. This committee consists of one representative of all political parties (also those that are not involved in municipal government), and of three citizens. A mix in gender, occupation and length of residency is respected.

Showcase offer of the shop selling gifts and goodies founded by a Syrian refugee. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

The number of applications the municipality received exceeds the number of available shop surfaces. The two best concepts have been chosen, leading to two new shops being created in the municipality. One of them complements the urban commercial landscape with products for babies to young parents and the other sells gifts and goodies. The second shop was found by a Syrian refugee, who has been welcomed in Differdange during 2020. The shops benefit from marketing support of the public city channels.

More commercial surfaces of different kind (shops, bars, restaurants, etc.) will become available in near future. With the experiences collected, the municipality wants to continue efforts to revitalise the city-centre. For this, more commercial surfaces will be purchased in future and more specialised concepts matching concrete citizen requirements will be realised. This will help to address the issue of commercial vacancies with a versatile and pro-active instrument.

The Differdange City Manager explaining the unique approach to combat commercial vacancies. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

For more information, visit www.diffmix.lu, which is the citizen involvement platform of the municipality (available in English, French and German) and the municipal website of the city of Differdange: www.differdange.lu

For more information or for comments, please contact the author of this article: sebastian.hans@spatialforesight.eu

How to enable sustainable urban commercial development in inner cities? How to cope with commercial concurrence between city centres and greenfield shopping centres? How to deal with commercial vacancies? What instruments and tools are there that decision-makers can use?

On Friday, 17. September 2021, CIPU organised an excursion to two Luxembourg cities to address these questions. During an afternoon, around 30 planners and experts from various cities and municipalities across the country learned about the approaches, of among other the city of Esch-sur-Alzette, the second biggest city of Luxembourg with 35,000 inhabitants.

The first half of the excursion led to Esch-sur-Alzette

In Esch-sur-Alzette, ‘CLAIRE’ is a municipal initiative with the objective to combat commercial vacancies in the city. The city, which has been a historic commercial centre of the Grand Duchy, features the highest level of commercial surfaces per capita in the country. Consequentially, the inner-city commercial surfaces are highly sensitive to newly occurring trends such as greenfield shopping centres and online shopping.

Luxembourg urban planners during the excursion in the shopping street in Esch-sur-Alzette. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

Esch-sur-Alzette, also known for its steel industry, has experienced several steel crises during the past century. As consequence, many family-owned businesses have closed because of declining turnover as result of the decreasing purchasing power. Additionally, a former steel mill called ‘Belval’, just adjacent to the city centre has been transformed into a new urban district. A large shopping mall offers many of the amenities the city centre can’t and increases the pressure on the inner-city shops even further.

In 2018, a citizen survey has identified commercial vacancies as a priority topic. Since then, municipal decision-makers became active and developed together with a consultancy the project ‘CLAIRE’, which employs 2.5 full time equivalents.

Planners during the excursion in Esch-sur-Alzette. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

‘CLAIRE’ helps the municipality to act as middle man between property owners and businesses. It brings shops and stores together through the negotiating power of the municipality and allows to bridge and negotiate different interests. This way the city effectively reduces the commercial vacancies. It offers proven solutions in the form of long-term leaseholds but can also make short-term uses possible; an interim use concepts provides surfaces to shops in the form of pop-up spaces or as showcases for publicity. With reducing commercial vacancies, the inner city has become more attractive, according to surveyed citizens.

An important part of ‘CLAIRE’ are pop-up surfaces. In the framework of this short-term use concept, shop owners can rent a flexible size of commercial surfaces for short periods of time. This helps shop owners to test the general demand and new products with marginal financial and organisational commitment. The pop-up surfaces are known to residents and shoppers from outside and have well-integrated into the ever-diversifying commercial offer in Esch-sur-Alzette of today.

Planners inside one of the pop-up stores. Source: Zeyen+Baumann.

Despite the COVID-19 pandemic and booming online commerce, ‘CLAIRE’ has shown results: in 2021, only 14% of the shop surfaces in Esch-sur-Alzette were vacant. The reduction of commercial vacancies has led to a better perception of the city centre and consequentially to a better image of the city as place to live and place to visit.

Still not all challenges can be solved. So for deadlocks regarding rent expectations of property owners, which sometimes exceed what businesses can pay for. However, rent for commercial surfaces can in most cases be successfully mediated through political support from the council of aldermen.

A more detailed description of the concept in English is provided in a CIPU project sheet, that you may find here: https://site.cipu.lu/images/2019_10_Factsheets/_Claire_final.pdf  

The project has also a website, that you can access here (German and French language): https://claire.esch.lu/

For more information or for comments, please contact the author of this article: sebastian.hans@spatialforesight.eu

Urban garden and horticultural shows have a long tradition in Europe. Many countries organise them, notably France with ‘Villes et Villages Fleuries’ (flowering cities and villages) and Germany with ‘Bundesgartenschau’ and ‘Landesgartenschau’ (federal and regional garden show).

Parks and green areas are created or refurbished to accommodate temporary exhibition areas. These spaces increase the attractiveness of cities and the well-being of residents. In 2025, an urban garden show will cover the whole of Luxembourg.

Rationale for action

Luxembourg has a long tradition in horticulture and related sectors. One is food production that yields a large range of niche products and producers as well as a well-developed local market which currently lack public recognition. An example is the long tradition of rose-growing in the country.

Objective

The Luxembourg Urban Garden show (LUGA) was launched to draw the attention of residents and tourists to the ‘green economy’ in Luxembourg. Appreciation for green jobs and local production will be increased by highlighting production methods, products and their historic and cultural importance. In addition to promoting the agricultural and horticultural sectors, it will also showcase ecological planning in the city of Luxembourg.

Cover image of the ‘Urban development nature’ topic. Source: LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden.

Time frame

Back in 2011 the idea for a horticultural show came up, which led to pre-studies and concept development. The LUGA will be held from May to October of 2025 but, as with other garden shows, the changes will be longer lasting, increasing the attractiveness of the city.

Originally, the garden show was planned for 2023. Because of the restrictions imposed in response to the COVID19 pandemic, the original timeplan had to be amended. In October 2021, it was decided to postpone the LUGA until 2025. Other measures have been put in place to compensate for the delay, inter alia a significant increase of the LUGA’s budget from EUR 10 million to EUR 22 million.

Key players

The City of Luxembourg has a key role as the main exhibition site. The Ministry of Agriculture, Viticulture and Rural Development is a key player and LUGA will be implemented in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Finance.

In charge for the implementation if the horticultural show is an association of which the Ministry of Agriculture, Viticulture and Rural Development and the City of Luxembourg hold equal shares.

Cover image of the ‘Social nature’ topic. Source: LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden

Implementation steps and processes

The Luxembourg horticultural association planted the seed for a horticultural show back in 2011. Since then, administrations have been active and have also conducted a feasibility study. In 2017, the garden show was approved and in 2019 the financial agreement was signed by all the partners. To implement LUGA an association was founded in 2019.

In July 2019, there was a press conference with political representatives of Luxembourg city and the Ministry of Agriculture, Viticulture and rural Development where the plans, layout and objectives were presented to the public.

Since then, the LUGA association has worked on detailing the plans and preparing implementation of the garden show to take place from May to October 2025.

The exhibition sites and their topics in Luxembourg City. Source: LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden.

Required resources

The project has a budget of EUR 10 million. Half of this is provided by the state and half by the City of Luxembourg. The budget should cover the LUGA association operating costs, coordination activities and also co-finance some of the projects.

Since 2019, four people in the LUGA association have been working full-time on the show. To implement the show, the association can rely on the support of many national and city services, for example the Luxembourg City park service.

Results

A public workshop in the presence of the Minister for Agriculture, Viticulture and Rural Development and the Luxembourg City Alderman for urban development was held in November 2019 where interested citizens could propose ideas. This workshop gathered more than 400 ideas from all parts of the country. These ideas were categorised in four themes that will structure the show in four sites in Luxembourg City:

  • ‘Pure nature’, will highlight the newly renaturalised Pétrusse river and adjacent park in the Pétrusse valley, a deep valley next to the city centre;
  • ‘Social nature’, will cover community gardens, ecological agriculture and urban agriculture in the Limpertsberg residential area and its park;
  • ‘Culture nature’ will feature historic gardens, floral art and cultural events in the historic eastern part of the city, around Grund, Clausen and Pfaffenthal;
  • ‘Urban development nature’ will show new and innovative approaches to urban greenery in the Kirchberg business district.
Cover image of the ‘Pure nature’ topic. Source: LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden.

Every exhibition site will be open to the public. The association counts on active involvement and support from citizens, businesses and interested organisations to implement LUGA in a collaborative way.

LUGA is designed to be open. Citizens can become involved and contribute as can other areas or businesses across the country that wish to become affiliated partners. This way, they can benefit from the publicity and attention created through LUGA.

Cover image of the ‘Culture nature’ topic. Source: LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden.

Experiences, success factors, risks

The enthusiastic publicity and promotion of LUGA in Luxembourg is raising expectations of residents and visitors towards the garden show.

The participative workshop in November 2019 was a success. Asking citizens and interested persons to propose ideas and concepts provided a wealth of proposals that could be realised under LUGA. Many of the ideas will be implemented in at least one of the exhibition sites in Luxembourg City or elsewhere in the country. Such participation significantly increases acceptance and ownership of citizens with the project.

Conclusions

With LUGA, Luxembourg will hold its first garden show. Many people and administrations are collaborating to make the show a success in 2025. With the participation of citizens, lasting changes to the urban landscape and the interesting ideas and concepts reported in the press, LUGA promises to be a successful event.

Contact

General E-mail address of LUGA: info@luga2023.lu

References

LUGA – Luxembourg Urban Garden, 2020: Website (in German):

Luxembourg Government, 2019: Public announcement of the Luxembourg Urban Garden exposition (in German):

https://gouvernement.lu/de/actualites/toutes_actualites/communiques/2019/07-juillet/18-schneiderr-expo-horticole.html

Celebrating the accession of the city of Differdange to the CIPU convention, we interviewed Laura Pregno, alderwoman for urban development and Manuel Lopes Costa, chief planner for the City of Differdange. Differdange is the third-largest city in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The interview covered climate change adaptation and climate action in Luxembourg urban areas.

Interviewer: Measures addressing climate change can reduce hazardous emissions, or deal with the consequences of climate change. What role does local development play in adapting to climate change?

Alderwoman Pregno and chief planner Lopes Costa: Urban development is important to climate change adaptation with municipal measures aligned to broader objectives. The city of Differdange directly contributes to Sustainable Development Goal 11 ‘Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’ through a municipal guideline.

Sustainable Development Goal 11. Source: UN, 2021.

The 2018 guideline lays out principles and objectives for renovation and construction of public buildings in Differdange (available here in German). It directly refers to the Sustainable Development Goals, linking municipality measures to global climate change adaptation and climate action. When implementing local measures, it is important to consider these overarching objectives and strategies as this ensures that players at all levels are working towards the same objectives creating synergies and avoiding conflicts.

Linking municipal efforts to broader global policies still leaves municipalities free to adapt their own visions, strategies and objectives. We develop our own visions and strategies for climate change adaptation and climate action through urban and district development in our city. Referring to the global objectives helps us to use monitoring, with measurable effects that are visible for Differdange residents.

Differdange uses municipal planning to involve citizens, associations, public institutions and services as well as businesses. In addition, our starting point for climate change adaptation differs from other places. In Differdange we have different pre-requisites than elsewhere, calling for territorially integrated actions and measures. Urban and district development instruments help us to incorporate local specificities in policy making.

Interviewer: Where do you see priorities and opportunities to use existing or new spatial planning and urban development instruments for climate change adaptation in Luxembourg?

Alderwoman Pregno and chief planner Lopes Costa: Luxemburg municipalities already have a range of instruments to hand that enable climate change adaptation and climate action to be integral in urban development. From our point of view, these instruments are sufficient for such measures.

However, climate change adaptation and climate action often lack clearly defined objectives and measures at municipal level in Luxembourg. In Differdange and other municipalities instruments could not be used to their full potential to carry out projects as there were unclear overarching objectives. These ambiguities have their origin in political disputes or a lack of climate-related strategies at municipal level.

This is why we, the city of Differdange, are working on clear politically approved objectives. An urban strategy is currently under development which will align all urban development projects in Differdange to contribute to climate change adaptation and climate action. The strategy will complement the existing guideline and is being developed jointly with citizens and across political parties, ensuring that all parties will work on its implementation.

Once these clear and politically approved objectives are defined at local level, we can use urban development and planning to their full potential to implement concrete measures. Our strategy will ensure that climate change adaptation and climate action objectives are addressed in urban development. The local zoning plan, PAG (Plan d’aménagement general) will influence land-use in favour of climate change adaptation, with specific land-use plans (Plan d’aménagement particulier)and urbanistic concepts for vacant land (Schémas Directeurs) enabling measures for private or public development projects, such as building layout and even construction materials.  

Interviewer: What role should climate change adaptation play in a sustainable urban development?

Alderwoman Pregno and chief planner Lopes Costa: In Luxembourg, impacts of climate change have become more visible in recent years. More frequent torrential rains, droughts and hazardous events have put climate change back into the population’s awareness. The most important instrument we as the city of Differdange have to counter these changes is sustainable urban development. Changing our urban landscape and making it more fit for the future will guarantee that our city remains liveable. Nevertheless, to make sure that we are all moving into the same direction we need joint visions and strategies. With our climate strategy, we increase leverage of our measures as we commit all political parties to shared objectives and measures.

Master plan for the ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ in Differdange. Source: Dewey Muller, 2020.

Interviewer: Can converting urban brownfields help climate change adaption?

Alderwoman Pregno and chief planner Lopes Costa: We have brownfield conversion experience with the large development project ‘Plateau fu Funiculaire’ in the centre of Differdange. Since 2004, we have been developing this district together with many stakeholders. The brownfield was a former dumpsite for the nearby blast furnace and was developed in a way that connects the city districts of Differdange, Differdange, Oberkorn and Fousbann. We also re-naturalised the river Chiers with special attention on providing natural flooding surfaces.

This large-scale brownfield development has much more freedom compared to developments in existing urban areas. We discussed and balanced measures before they were realised in detail. This has helped to avoid conflicts. Also, planners optimally balance the three pillars of sustainable development; economy, ecology and society at project level.

However, this process takes time. It is important that concerns on climate change adaptation and climate action are considered in the planning process from the very beginning. Only then can the different needs and requirements be balanced through iterative discussions and negotiations between sector experts, so operational concepts can be developed and implemented.

In addition, brownfield development projects such as ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ serve as testbeds for new approaches and technologies. Its size meant we faced challenges that could not be solved with existing planning approaches. An example is providing heat to the 600 units in the district. The area was planned with a centralised district heat system as early as 2007 to reduce infrastructure costs and to save energy. The idea could only be adopted later, but time is available in such large-scale brownfield developments.

‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ from above during construction. Source: Dewey Muller, 2020.

Interviewer: Thank you and we will definitely cover the ‘Plateau du Funiculaire’ project in our upcoming descriptions of good practices from Luxembourg. What is the role of the CIPU for climate change adaptation in Luxembourg?

Alderwoman Pregno and chief planner Lopes Costa: The National Information Unit for Urban Policy (CIPU) is a platform to liaise partners and other players in Luxembourg on climate change adaptation. In addition to our measures in Differdange, all cities and municipalities across Luxembourg develop and implement climate change adaptation and climate action measures. CIPU events, workshops and related activities help bring this knowledge and experience together to create new knowledge. CIPU also facilitates discussion on difficulties encountered when implementing measures to support climate change adaptation and climate action. Critical reflection in the framework of CIPU events is crucial to designing and implementing changes to improve urban development in the country.

For any questions on the article, please refer to the author: sebastian.hans@spatialforesight.eu

Many brownfield development projects are under way in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. ‘Porte de Hollerich’ in Luxembourg City, ‘Belval’ in Esch-sur-Alzette, ‘Wunne mat der Wooltz’ in Wiltz and ‘NeiSchmelz’ in Dudelange are a few examples. All these are creating new urban districts with living space for many additional inhabitants and businesses. The ‘NeiSchmelz’ project in Dudelange will provide an additional 1,000 housing units on a 40 hectare brownfield site.

Large-scale brownfield development projects present many challenges for their cities, especially energy. In addition, existing infrastructure struggles to satisfy the increased demand. For ‘NeiSchmelz’, an innovative energy concept was developed, to use photovoltaics and deep geothermal energy.

View on the steel mill in 1928, that occupied the area of ‘NeiSchmelz’. Source: City of Dudelange, 2017.

Rationale for action

Because of its size, the ‘NeiSchmelz’ brownfield development poses significant challenges for the existing energy network. This would need to be extended if not complemented with new production facilities. As infrastructure investment significantly increases the cost of such projects, an alternative solution was needed.

‘NeiSchmelz’ was therefore planned as an eco-district. Renewable and carbon-neutral energy will be produced on site, i.e. not relying on fossil resources to supply electricity or heat. There are no centralised renewable energy production facilities in the area, so future energy in the district must be produced on site.

Planners had to develop an energy concept that relies on different energy sources. These will be photovoltaic installations (roofs and open ground) as well as the first deep geothermal drilling in Luxembourg. However, being the first in Luxembourg to drill 2,000 meter down, experience is scarce and the viability and potential had to be determined first.

Objective

Deep geothermal drillings are costly and innovative measures require intensive scoping-studies and test drilling to investigate whether this energy source is financially viable.

The potential for geothermal energy around ‘NeiSchmelz’ is significant. This has led to further investigation to assess drilling for heating in the district.

A first study on geothermal potential in Luxembourg was a doctoral thesis at the German Research Centre for Geosciences and the Luxembourg Geological Service between 2010 and 2015. A more concrete feasibility study included several drillings to test technical details and feasibility.  

Video of the ‘NeiSchmelz’ project from the National Fund for Housing ‘Fonds du Logement’, 2021.

Time frame

The first energy concept for the district was developed in 2014. In 2015 important geothermal energy potential in ‘NeiSchmelz’ was identified. A new energy concept was developed in 2017 building on geothermal energy as a primary source for heat. A feasibility study between 2017 and 2019 determined the potential in greater detail.

Key players

The driving force behind the district and the energy concept is the City of Dudelange. It approves the energy concept and the land-use plan as well as following up on implementation of the measures. The district is being developed in cooperation with the Luxembourg Ministry of Housing and the national fund for affordable housing ‘Fonds du Logement’. The Luxembourg Ministry of Environment and its energy department is also a key player for developing and realising the districts’ energy concept. The City of Dudelange can thus rely on the support of national institutions in developing and implementing the plans.

Implementation steps and processes

With little experience of deep geothermal drillings among the involved institutions, preliminary investigations were required. A feasibility study measured the geothermal energy potential including test drillings of 300 to 400 meters between 2017 and 2019 in the area of the future district. The feasibility study determined that deep geothermal energy could supply the entire district with heat. At 2,000 meters temperatures of 70° to 80° Celsius yield enough heat to supply the district with hot water.

Required resources

The preparatory analysis including the feasibility study and test drillings cost about half a million Euros. This was co-funded by 40 % from the Luxembourg European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) programme. The total resources planned for deep geothermal drilling is unknown.

Results

‘NeiSchmelz’ will be equipped with a district heat system powered by a centralised geothermal energy plant. In conjunction with photovoltaic installations and near-surface geothermal energy, ‘NeiSchmelz’ will be an energy self-sufficient development.

Experiences, success factors, risks

Geothermal energy is new to Luxembourg and knowledge of potential, techniques, feasibility and economic viability are still scarce. In developing the concept and the feasibility study, cooperation between specialised players is key to ensuring that knowledge is institutionalised. This will help when implementing similar projects in future.

Urban development concept for the ‘NeiSchmelz’ district. Source: City of Dudelange, 2017.

Conclusions

Geothermal energy means the heat for all ‘NeiSchmelz’ will be from a renewable energy source. In conjunction with extensive photovoltaic installations, the district will have energy self-sufficiency and be a zero-carbon emissions district. As such, it is the first in Luxembourg, offering important experience for future large-scale brownfield developments in the country.

Contact

Mr Patrick Hoss, Director of the ecological department of the City of Dudelange: patrick.hoss@dudelange.lu

References

Tageblatt, 2018: Newspaper article on the planned use of geothermal energy in Dudelange (in German): https://www.tageblatt.lu/headlines/das-heisse-potenzial-von-duedelingen/

City of Dudelange, 2019: Chronology of the development of the brownfield development ‘NeiSchmelz’ (in French): https://www.dudelange.lu/fr/projets-urbains/projet-neischmelz

Climate change also affects Luxembourg. More frequent droughts, torrential rains and flooding are just some of the changes expected in the near future. Climate action measures can address these changes. By reducing the environmental impact of human actions, climate change can be slowed if not halted.

To monitor progress in climate action, Luxembourg, along with all other Member States of the European Union, has set out ambitious climate action targets in its National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030. To help reach the targets, the Luxembourg Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development together with the national agency myenergy has developed a unique tool that supports climate action in municipalities across the country.

Rationale for action

The Luxembourg National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030 defines targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55%, to increase energy efficiency by 40-44% and to increase the share of renewable energy by 25%.

Objective

To help to accelerate the transition, effective instruments are needed to increase renewable energy production and energy efficiency.

At the same time, many climate and energy related decisions are made at a municipal level. So, climate action cannot be implemented without the consent and support of the country’s municipalities. An instrument was needed that would help to identify, structure, fund and communicate measures for climate action convincing municipalities to be primary players in climate action and rewarding their efforts. Thus, the idea for Klimapakt was born.

Time frame

The first edition of Klimapakt supported municipalities between 2012 and 2020. In 2021 a second edition of the instrument is being launched to continue to support municipalities with more ambitious measures until 2030.

Key players

Municipalities are the main target and the main players for implementing climate action measures. The idea for Klimapakt was developed by the Luxembourg Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development and the Luxembourg agency myenergy and is based on the european energy award (eea).

Implementation steps and processes

Klimapakt is implemented through an agreement between the Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development, myenergy and individual municipalities. The agreement equips municipalities with financial and human resources to implement climate action measures. It also requires municipalities to implement measures to benefit from funding provided by the state. This way, municipalities can choose the projects that best fit the local context and the state maintains control over spending and results.

After signing the contract, a climate team is put in place, with local elected officials, collaborators of the municipality (the climate team), local enterprises and citizens as well as an external climate advisor (provided from myenergy) or an internal climate advisor (employee from the municipality). The initial assessment of the municipality and its energy consumption is established by the climate advisor and the climate team. Based on a pre-defined catalogue of measures, municipalities then select individual measures, contribute to increased energy efficiency or reduced energy consumption. These measures are grouped in a work programme.

Depending on the size of the municipality, a climate advisor is available for a number of workdays every year (up to 75 days). In addition to the main climate advisor, municipalities can also book specialized advisors in the fields of circular economy and building renovation.

Klimapakt has 64 measures categorized in six categories, ranging from spatial planning, construction, municipal infrastructure and services, resource management, mobility, internal organisation to communication and cooperation.

Klimapakt measures are based on the framework catalogue of the european energy award and are adapted to the Luxembourg context. This ensures that actions contribute to the European reference framework for local climate actions.

Every measure has a specific number of points, enabling monitoring of progress towards programme objectives. By implementing the measures, municipalities benefit from financial support from the state.

Labels for certifying municipalities at 40%, 50%, 65% and 75% progress. Source: myenergy.lu

Municipal Klimapakt programmes are monitored every three years and can be certified at 40%, 50%, 65% and 75% progress. At the same time, Luxembourg municipalities are certified with the european energy award system, giving greater international visibility.

Complementing the general framework catalogue from the European energy award, municipalities can also work towards thematic certifications in the fields of circular economy, climate change adaptation and air quality.

Required resources

To implement the measures, municipalities benefit – in addition to the climate advisor – from an annual payment of EUR 10 to 45 per capita based on the number of residents and level of certification.

Results

The success of the initiative speaks for itself. In 2020, each of the 102 municipalities in Luxembourg was engaged in the Klimapakt and 96% of them were certified.

78 of these municipalities were certified at above 50% in 2020, having implemented more than half of the measures of the contract between the state and the municipalities. 13 municipalities even reached the 75% certification level.

By following the european energy award certification, municipalities can also get European level awards at the 75% level. In 2020, thirteen Luxembourg municipalities were awarded the eea ‘Gold’ status for their climate action.

Experiences, success factors, risks

Using a label to certify municipality action has helped to market the Klimapakt approach to the target group. Municipalities are using the label to make their measures visible to residents and to benchmark their efforts against other municipalities. This makes the instrument an important lever to support climate action in the country.

Conclusions

The Klimapakt is not just a technocratic instrument to increase municipal climate action. It has also become a brand in Luxembourg, showing municipality efforts on climate action.

The first Klimapakt, showed the instrument can be an umbrella for climate action. New measures and standards in the upcoming edition will encourage stronger result-orientation and cooperation with citizens through public participation.

Contact

Mr Bruno Barboni, project officer for Klimapakt: bruno.barboni@myenergy.lu

References

Barboni, B. & Faber, F., 2020: Presentation of Klimapakt 1.0 and 2.0 (in Luxembourgish): https://www.pacteclimat.lu/sites/default/files/media-docs/2021-03/myenergy-presentatioun_0.pdf

KlimaPakt, 2021: Measures catalogue (in German and French): https://www.pacteclimat.lu/de/engagierter-akteur/umsetzungshilfe

KlimaPakt, 2021: Library of relevant documents (in German and French): https://www.pacteclimat.lu/de/engagierter-akteur/mediathek

Urban retailers face increasing competition through changing consumer behaviour including online shopping and greenfield shopping centres. This leads to vacant retail areas within cities, as customer footfall is channelled away from the centres.

This trend affects the commercial landscape in Luxembourg. Nevertheless, there is almost no data being collected that could help to provide a deeper understanding of the trend and how it can be counteracted. So, the General Directorate for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises of the Luxembourgish Ministry of Economy, the Chamber of Commerce and the Luxembourg Confederation for Commerce (CLC) initiated the ‘Pakt PRO Commerce’.

The pact will help leverage the economic situation of retailers. A key part of the instrument is the Commercial Observation Register, a new tool to document and categorise businesses across the country. It can be used to analyse the commercial landscape and to inform decision-makers on where there is a large range of retailers and hence centrality as well as potential locations for additional retailers.

Rationale for action

The retailing sector is just one of the many sectors affected by digitalisation as more and more sales volume is generated online. In Luxembourg, between 80% and 90% of the population regularly shops online while only 10% of Luxembourg based shops offer products via the internet. In addition, many greenfield developments for large retailing centres are currently underway, probably decreasing customer footfall in city centres.

These trends threaten the survival of small urban retailers, as their customer base declines. Therefore, more and more retailing space risks being left vacant, which decreases the retail supply and the attractivity of city centers.

Objective

Increasing the understanding of ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’ these processes happen is the main objective of the Commercial Observation Register. This is a nation-wide database of retailers and their characteristics, enabling analysis of the commercial landscape in a city or municipality.

With the aid of data, the Commercial Observation Register can help answer critical questions for developing the urban commercial landscape, such as; ‘What trends shape and form a city’s commercial landscape?’, ‘How does the commercial landscape of a city look?’, ‘Where are the best locations for retailers currently?’ and ‘Where are ideal locations for new retailers?’. The answers assist decision making on urban development.

Time frame

‘Pakt PRO Commerce’, which includes the Commercial Observation Register, was launched in 2016. Collecting information on urban retailers in Luxembourg was completed in February 2019.

Key players

‘Pakt PRO Commerce’ was launched by three partners; the General Directorate for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises of the Ministry of Economy, the Chamber of Commerce and the Luxembourg Confederation of Commerce (CLC). During the test phase, the Commercial Observation Register has been implemented and managed by the latter organisation.

Users of the Commercial Observation Register are municipal or national policy makers looking to make decisions that could impact the retail landscape.

Based on information from the Commercial Observation Register, the location and typology of shops could be mapped to identify the inner city area of the City of Dudelange. Source: CLC, 2018.

Implementation steps and processes

The Commercial Observation Register is a national database regrouping information on the locations and types of retailers. The CLC, in charge of implementation during the pilot phase, started designing the analysis tool in 2016. Since then, information about each retailer in the country has been surveyed, including address, name, type, size of retail space, business model and type of distribution. These results are fed into a central Geographic Information System (GIS) and can be used for further processing and analysis.

For first-hand analysis, the GIS database can provide information on all retailers in a given location at any time. For more in-depth analysis, the GIS database can be complemented with market analysis, i.e. purchasing power, location analysis and turnover forecasts.

Required resources

The first pilot phase of the Commercial Observation Register has been finalised in 2018. It is planned to make the tool accessible to decision-makers during 2021. However, information on required resources are not available. How the different municipalities and policy makers will be able to benefit from the Commercial Observation Register will be determined after first projects will be finalised, using information from the Register.

Results

With the Commercial Observation Register, municipalities and policy makers can access a versatile tool supporting decision-making. It enables appropriate strategic decisions shaping future commercial landscapes in cities and municipalities. The tool enables definitions of commercial centres, decisions on locating new retailers and understanding impacts of trends, such as digitalisation, on the urban retailing environment.

To elaborate additional benefits and applications of the Commercial Observation Register, the instrument will be tested in five cities. This will enable additional conclusions on specialised applications as well as the data and analysis required to react to specific issues, such as shop vacancy, parking and accessibility, trends in the retailing sector and more. Testing the tool will also provide insights as to when the information can be used best to shape local decision making. This helps to create tailor-made and result-oriented applications for the various retail sector players in Luxembourg.

Potential use of the Commercial Observation Register can be illustrated through development of the new district ‘am Duerf’ by the municipality of Dudelange within the city centre. This new district helped to bridge a commercially deserted area between the two main commercial centres. The number of businesses has increased from 167 to 215 (2018) in just three years, increasing the attraction of the city centre. Also, two commercial hotspots which were formerly separated could be transformed by the ‘am Duerf’ development into a single, continuous retail district (see Map).

The pilot of the Commercial Observation Register has been extended in 2019 on the cities of Esch-sur-Alzette, Diekirch, Remich and Bertrange, addressing different challenges to urban retailers throughout the country.

Map of the commercial situation before and after development of the ‘am Duerf’ district. Source: CLC, 2018.

Experiences, success factors, risks

In the future, the Commercial Observation Register will become a powerful tool to assist policy makers in shaping development of the retailing sector. Not only location, but also decisions on retail space needs can be influenced by the tool. However, the Commercial Observation Register relies on an extensive data collection procedure. Only if data is collected regularly in every municipality can there be reliable observations on trends. This might reflect on the operational costs of the tool for its stakeholders.

Conclusions

The Commercial Observation Register is an instrument with a lot of potential applications to shape retailing functions in Luxembourg’s cities and municipalities. It informs policy makers about the retailing landscape, type and development of supply so they can make decisions considering changing consumer behaviour. Even though such an instrument is not new to the set of tools available to urban planners, it is the first of its kind in Luxembourg. More initiatives like the Commercial Observation Register supporting domestic retailers and shop owners, such as the online platform “Letzshop”, have been implemented recently.

Contact

General contact address of the Luxembourg Confederation of Commerce: info@clc.lu

References

Pact PRO Commerce, 2018 (in French and German): https://www.procity.lu/fr/2018/07/16/quelle-valeur-ajoutee-le-nouveau-cadastre-du-commerce-offre-t-il/

Luxembourg Confederation for Commerce, 2018: The new Commercial observation register for Luxembourg. What’s the added-value? (in German): https://www.procity.lu/2018/07/16/das-neue-cadastre-du-commerce-welchen-mehrwert-bietet-es/

Wort, 2020: Le cadastre commercial fait attendre (in French): https://www.wort.lu/fr/luxembourg/le-cadastre-commercial-se-fait-attendre-5e4417feda2cc1784e3560fe